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     2  +2 2014 sep 22interferon gammaIFN - gamma (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)IFN - gamma is produced mainly by T-cells and natural killer cells activated by antigens, mitogens, or alloantigens. It is produced by lymphocytes expressing the  ...
     3  +1 2014 sep 23fsdgfFSdGF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)FSdGF . [Folliculo stellate cell-derived growth factor] This factor has been isolated from ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term FSdGF .
     4  ~ 2014 sep 22councilman bodiesCouncilman bodies (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Councilman bodies . Called also: Councilman cells. This term refers to acidophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, which also show shrinkage ...
     4  ~ 2014 sep 19wehiWEHI -3B (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)WEHI -3B. A macrophage-like myelomonocytic leukemia cell line established from inbred BALB/c mice. This cell line is used as a standard cell line because it ...
     4  +11 2014 sep 08hgflHGFL (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)HGFL . [hepatocyte growth factor-like protein] see: HGF-like protein. Copyright © 2012 ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term HGFL .
     5  -1 2014 sep 18gitrGITR (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)GITR . [glucocorticoid induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family related gene] GITR is a type 1 transmembrane protein of 228 amino acids belonging to the ...
     5  -3 2014 sep 15g cellsG cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)G cells and D cells are derived from a common multihormonal precursor cell ( Larsson, 2000). Choi et al (2008) have implicated the homeodomain transcription  ...
     6  +31 2014 sep 07chemokinesChemokines (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Chemokines have molecular masses of 8-10 kDa and show approximately 20-50 % sequence homology among each other at the protein level. The proteins ...
     6  +36 2014 aug 20dead on domainsdeath domain (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)death domain . (abbr. DD) This domain of approximately 80 amino acids was identified by deletion analysis in the C-terminal intracellular region of the 55 kDa  ...
     7  -1 2014 sep 19tdsf mTDSF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)cell line G361. TDSF strongly suppresses the generation of tumoricidal ... See REFERENCES for entry TDSF . ... U L T R A P O S S E N E M O O B L I G A T U R.
     8  +1 2014 sep 21stroma vascular fractionstromal - vascular fraction cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia Stromal - vascular fraction cells include endothelial cells, nerve cells, macrophages, monocytes, fibroblast-like interstitial cells, regulatory T-cells, pre- adipocytes, ...
     8  -2 2014 sep 13cytokinesCytokines & Cells Encyclopedia (Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE)COPE, claiming over 10000 entries, over 19000 references on cytokine research, hyperlinks, with tables, formulae, graphics, and integrated sub-dictionaries on ...
     8  -2 2014 sep 10internal root sheath functionhair follicle sheath cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The terms inner root sheath cells and outer root sheath cells pertain to the root sheath of hair follicles, which consists of a group of concentric layers of epithelial  ...
     8  +4 2014 sep 07crf2CRF2 -4 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)[cytokine receptor family 2 member 4] CRF2 -4 is a member of the type 2 cytokine receptor family (Gibbs and Pennica, 1997). The gene, CRFB4 (Lutfalla et al, ...
     9  +2 2014 oct 03transforming growth factortransforming growth factor -beta (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia Previous entry: transforming growth factor -alpha, Next entry: ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term transforming growth factor -beta .
     9  -5 2014 sep 25gm csfGM - CSF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The synthesis of GM - CSF by various other cell types, for example, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, is inducible by TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, IL1, IL2 and IFN.
     9  -1 2014 sep 14magaininMagainins (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Magainins . Magainins (23 amino acids) constitute a family of peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Magainin -1 and ...
     9  +92 2014 aug 13french fries postcardspostcard and stampware (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Our two boys have become ardent collectors of stamps and postcards (and where I ... Donations received so far would allow me to buy some French fries and a ...
     10  +91 2014 sep 21prr1PRR1 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Cocchi et al (1998) have reported that PRR1 and HIgR are splice variants. Expression of the protein confers susceptibility to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1, HSV-2 ...
     11  -3 2014 sep 19stromal vascular
     11  +1 2014 sep 17hepcidinHepcidin (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)abbr. HEPC. Hepcidin is a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from human urine and produced in liver hepatocytes (Park et al, 2001; Pigeon et al, 2001).
     11  +90 2014 sep 15hbsrHbSR (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)HbSR . [hemoglobin scavenger receptor] The hemoglobin scavenger receptor scavenges haptoglobin / hemoglobin complexes (Kristiansen M et al, 2001).
     11  +1 2014 sep 13thymus hormonesThymic hormones (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Thymic epithelial cells respond to IL1 with proliferation and secretion of IL6 and GM-CSF. The endocrine influences of thymic hormones decline with age and are  ...
     11  -4 2014 aug 23cytokine release syndromeCytokine release syndrome (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)an acute clinical syndrome attributed to the release of excessive amounts of cytokines (cytokinemia, ... See REFERENCES for entry Cytokine release syndrome .
     11  +13 2014 aug 01transforming growth factorsTGF-alpha (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)TGF-alpha is related closely to EGF and TGF-alpha is therefore sometimes called EGF-like transforming growth factor . The biological activities of these two ...
     12  -6 2014 sep 28kg 1KG - 1 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)A subline of KG - 1 , designated KG1a, has lost myeloid features, acquired new karyotypic markers, and has several characteristics associated with immature ...
     12  +45 2014 sep 19hamster xX -ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese Hamster Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term X -ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese Hamster cells 6 .
     12  +2 2014 sep 15macula densamacula densa cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Macula densa cells express osmoreceptors that allows them to sense and respond to changes in ionic content and fluid volumes in the tubule (Sipos et al, 2010) ...
     13  ~ 2014 sep 25basophilsbasophils (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Basophils are a type of bone marrow-derived granulocytes (basophilic granulocytes) that comprise less than 1 % of the circulating leukocytes. The nuclei aqre ...
     13  -1 2014 sep 13flg leadsflg (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)flg . [fms-like gene] This human gene has been isolated initially by sequence homology ... The expression of some mutated variants of the flg receptor leads to the ...
     13  -3 2014 sep 07fibroblastfibroblasts (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Fibroblasts from different anatomical locations show an array of common phenotypic attributes and are capable of expressing multiple regulatory molecules, ...
     14  +22 2014 sep 22virus zSabia virus Z -protein (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Sabia virus Z -protein. see: Arenavirus Z-proteins. For other virus-encoded proteins with immunomodulatory/immune evasion activities and/or functions of ...
     14  ~ 2014 sep 17blnkBLNK (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)BLNK is a protein of 456 amino acids that contains various protein domains, including SH2 domains. BLNK -S is an alternatively spliced protein that lacks a ...
     17  +84 2014 sep 07nip3Nip3 -like protein X (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Nip3 -like protein X. abbr. NIX. See: Adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein. ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term Nip3 -like protein X .
     17  +31 2014 sep 05foam cellfoam cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Foam cells develop from macrophages that have ingested oxidized low density lipoprotein by a variety of endocytic pathways (Itabe and Takano, 2000).
     17  +84 2014 jul 28hepatocyte growth factorHepatocyte growth factor (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Hepatocyte growth factor . see: HGF (two entries for two different factors). ... BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term Hepatocyte growth factor .
     18  -6 2014 sep 13dr vangehuchtenvan Gehuchten cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)See REFERENCES for entry van Gehuchten cells. Click BACKLINKS to see ... Created, developed, and maintained by Prof Dr H Ibelgaufts About the author of ...
     18  +8 2014 sep 11tdsfTDSF strongly suppresses the generation of tumoricidal lymphokine-activated killer cells in response to IL2 (see: LAK cells). TDSF is not identical with TGF-beta  ...
     19  -3 2014 sep 16vegfVEGF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)VEGF has been isolated from bovine pituitaries. The protein is produced also by murine neuroblastoma cell lines and a plethora of other tumor cells, tumors, and  ...
     19  +32 2014 aug 04foreign body reactionforeign body reaction (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)foreign body reaction . The foreign body reaction is an inflammatory reaction of the body elicited in response to implanted biomaterials and is of great importance  ...
     19  +7 2014 jul 17colony forming unitsosteoblast colony - forming units (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia osteoblast colony-forming cells, Next entry: ... osteoblast colony - forming units ... to see which COPE entries contain the term osteoblast colony - forming units .
     20  -8 2014 sep 25stromal vascular fraction
     20  +81 2014 aug 21in vivo angiogenesis assaydirected in vivo angiogenesis assay (Cytokines & Cells See subentry Angiogenesis assays in entry Angiogenesis. ... BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term directed in vivo angiogenesis assay .
     20  -5 2014 aug 11heat shock proteinsheat shock proteins (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Heat shock proteins are expressed by cells under conditions of cell stress. Their expression is induced by a range of stimuli other than increased temperature, ...
     21  +2 2014 sep 28tmdctMDC -1 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Frayne and Hall (1998) have reported the cloning and sequence of human tMDC -1 transcripts and shown that they are non-functional, owing to the presence of ...
     21  -7 2014 sep 12int 2int - 2 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)int - 2 was identified initially as a cellular oncogene, the expression of which was found to be activated by the integration of viral DNA sequences into neighboring  ...
     21  +5 2014 jul 22in vivo assayIn Vivo Cytokine Capture Assay (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia It has been developed to measure in vivo concentrations of cytokines, which poses a problem with conventional bioassays and other cytokine assays because ...
     22  +36 2014 sep 29memory cells of immune systemmemory cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Memory B- cells are long-lived cells that quickly proliferate in response to an ... cells during subsequent exposure of the immune system to the antigen that ...
     22  -10 2014 jul 19free pakt backlinksPANDER (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)and reduces insulin-stimulated PI3K and pAkt levels, suggesting that PANDER ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term PANDER . ... Access to COPE is free only for academic institutions and non-profit organizations.
     24  +32 2014 aug 13soft agar assayColony formation assay (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)In this test cells are grown in vitro in soft agar (tissue culture medium containing ... A soft agar colony formation assay can be used also to measure the sensitivity ...
     25  +15 2014 jul 30tgf-b inhibition hair lossTGF - beta (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The synthesis of TGF - beta can be inhibited by EGF, FGF, dexamethasone, .... TGF - beta -2 is the only variant that does not inhibit the growth of endothelial cells. .... reduction in the number of replicating cells in the epidermis and hair follicles.
     25  +3 2014 jul 17retinal pigment epitheliumRetinal pigment epithelium cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia called also retinal pigmented cells. Abbr. RPE cells. These cells are polarized epithelial cells found in the retina and recognized by their pigmentation ...
     26  ~ 2014 sep 28randamRANDAM -2 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)RANDAM -2. See: Podoplanin. Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term RANDAM -2 .
     26  -11 2014 sep 23ph domainPH domain (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)There is hardly any sequence homology between PH domains . These domain consists of patterns of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, which are separated ...
     26  -6 2014 sep 20x mlifMLIF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)MLIF . [ monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor ] This factor has been found in the supernatant fluid of axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica-HM1 as an activity ...
     26  +18 2014 sep 11s lpsS - LPS (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)S - LPS . [smooth LPS, smooth lipopolysaccharides] See: endotoxins. Copyright © 2012 ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term S - LPS .
     26  -8 2014 aug 06cif alvaro miragallneurons (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)2009; Miragall F et al, 1990; Brezun JM and Daszuta A, 2000; Theodosis DT,
     26  +75 2014 aug 05hepatic tumor and rheumatoidhepatocellular carcinoma (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major type of primary liver cancer . .... growth factor, AURA9, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 9) (Castillo et al, 2006)
     26  +75 2014 jul 24smooth muscle cellsmooth muscle cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Smooth muscle cells play an important role in vasculogenesis and shape the wall of blood vessels and maintain vascular tone. Cell death by apoptosis plays an ...
     27  -16 2014 sep 29sir syndromSystemic inflammatory response syndrome (Cytokines & Cells Sepsis (septic shock syndrome; abbr. SSS) is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by an infection. It is a severe and frequently lethal ...
     27  ~ 2014 aug 28enclyopedia of nlpNLP (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)NLP . [NGF-like protease] This protein has been purified from the crude venom of the Chinese snake Agkistrodon halys Pallas. Its amino-terminal sequence ...
     28  -12 2014 sep 14gemmCFU- GEMM (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)IL3 and GM-CSF as single factors are equally active in stimulating CFU- GEMM , but the combination of both factors produces additive stimulatory effects upon ...
     28  +11 2014 aug 29stem cell factorStem cell factor (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Note: the abbreviation SCF has been used also for Sertoli cell factor. ... To date it is unclear whether SCF really is the stem cell factor because there are some ...
     30  -15 2014 sep 23bnp boldBNP (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The approved gene symbol for BNP is NPPB [natriuretic peptide precursor type B ]. ... BNP is produced mainly by cardiac ventricle cells (de Bold et al, 1985).
     30  ~ 2014 sep 12hypoblasthypoblast (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)hypoblast . See: blastocyst. For other related/relevant entries see also: Cell types. ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term hypoblast .
     30  ~ 2014 sep 08ant2ANT2 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)ANT2 . [Adenine nucleotide translocator 2] see: ANT. For other entries pertaining to cell ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term ANT2 .
     30  +7 2014 jul 21extra cellular matrixextracellular matrix (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The extracellular matrix is more than a scaffold that fills extracellular spaces. Many of its components are engaged in processes mediating cell-to-cell ...
     31  +1 2014 jul 22grou nd glass hepatocytehepatocytes (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Ground glass hepatocytes , described first by Hadziyannis et al (1973) have a cytoplasm with the appearance of ground glass. Such cells are a hallmark of ...
     34  ~ 2014 jul 19nicetine free by galectinPAMP (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Galectin -3 internal gene ... PAMP-12 regulates release and synthesis of catecholamines by acting on nicotinic cholinergic receptors in an autocrine manner ... Access to COPE is free only for academic institutions and non-profit organizations.
     35  ~ 2014 sep 18endothelinsBig endothelins (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Big endothelins . see: ET. Copyright © 2012 by H IBELGAUFTS. All rights ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term Big endothelins .
     35  ~ 2014 aug 20pattern recognition receptorsPattern recognition receptorSee: PAMPs [pathogen-associated molecular patterns]. See also: Pattern recognition receptor MiniCOPE Dictionary, which collects entries pertaining to proteins ...
     36  -13 2014 sep 29blood group indiaIndian blood group antigen (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)In blood group antigen. This blood group antigen has been described originally by Badakere et al (1973, 1974) in the Indian population. The antigen is located ...
     36  +65 2014 sep 19il1bIL1B (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)IL1B . This is the approved gene symbol for IL1-beta. See: IL1. Copyright © 2012 by H ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term IL1B .
     36  +30 2014 sep 09mechanism of csf productionGM- CSF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The exact mechanism by which the factor is eventually released from these depots ... Since GM- CSF is produced by cells (T-lymphocytes, tissue macrophages, ...
     37  -10 2014 oct 02mechano growth factormechano growth factor (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)This factor is a splice variant of IGF-1 produced by active muscle. MGF is derived from ... MGF24 is a 24-amino acid C-terminal peptide of mechano growth factor .
     37  -16 2014 sep 24leukocytesleukocytes (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)leukocytes . a general collective term for some cell types of the hematopoietic system (see also: hematopoiesis). Leukocytes are those cells that do not produce  ...
     37  ~ 2014 sep 16mtspMTSP -1 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)MTSP -1. [murine T-cell-derived serine proteinase-1] see: TSP-1. Copyright © 2012 by ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term MTSP - 1 .
     37  ~ 2014 aug 01leukemia inhibitory factorleukemia inhibitory factor receptor-beta (Cytokines & Cells See: LIFR [ leukemia inhibitory factor receptor; LIF receptor]. ... BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term leukemia inhibitory factor receptor-beta .
     38  -4 2014 sep 26b panpan - B -cell antigen (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)pan - B -cell antigen. This (general) term for an antigen expressed on all types of B - cells has been used in the older references to refer to the cell surface antigen ...
     38  -18 2014 sep 133t3 feeder3T3 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The name 3T3 derives from very early studies of the behavior of primary murine cell cultures, which were found to grow much better and ... Use as feeder cells.
     38  +15 2014 aug 29flip your domainFLIP (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The long form, designated FLIP -L, contains a domain resembling those found in caspases. A third isoform, termed FLIP -R, has been identified by Golks et al ...
     38  +63 2014 aug 02regulatory t cellsregulatory T - cells (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)Treg cells , Tr cells or simply Tregs; also more generally: regulatory T - lymphocytes. This subpopulation of T - cells was known once as suppressor T - cells (also: T  ...
     39  ~ 2014 sep 20tsr1TSR1 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)TSR1 . [TGF-beta superfamily receptor type 1]. See: ACVRL1 [activin A receptor type ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term TSR1 .
     40  ~ 2014 sep 10hyper igmHyper - IgM immunodeficiency syndrome (Cytokines & Cells known as HIGM1 or IMD3 (immunodeficiency with hyper - IgM immunodeficiency 3 ). This is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by normal or elevated serum ...
     40  +10 2014 sep 03b tranceTRANCE (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)[tumor necrosis factor-related activation induced cytokine] TRANCE is a member of ... of the transcription factors NF-kappa- B and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase).
     40  +2 2014 sep 02ch domainCH domain (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)(-1-) calponin homology domain . This protein domain of approximately 110 amino acids (Banuelos et al, 1998; Stradal et al, 1998) is named after the actin ...
     41  -15 2014 sep 28stifSTIF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)STIF is not identical with IL2 or IFN-gamma. It inhibits the DNA synthesis of mouse bone marrow and leukemia cells. STIF also inhibits the DNA synthesis of a ...
     41  +2 2014 sep 10vpopvPOP (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)vPOP . [viral PYD-only protein; viral pyrin-only protein 1] This protein, also viral PYPAF1 or viral NLRP3, is encoded in the genome of the poxvirus Shope fibroma ...
     41  ~ 2014 aug 30mannan binding lectinmannan - binding lectin A (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)MBL-A. See: MBL [Mannose-binding lectin; mannan - binding lectin ]. ... Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term mannan - binding lectin A .
     42  +9 2014 sep 15mono macMono Mac 6 (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)See REFERENCES for entry Mono Mac 6. Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term Mono Mac 6 . COPE Homepage, Top of Page ...
     42  +52 2014 sep 07csifCSIF (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)CSIF . This term has multiple meanings: (-1-) see: Cytokine ... ENTRY COMPLETED. Click BACKLINKS to see which COPE entries contain the term CSIF .
     42  +33 2014 aug 22human one epoEpo (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)The sequences of simian, murine, and human Epo show a sequence identity of 95 ... is a protein of 507 amino acids with a single membrane-spanning domain.
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