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     1  +6 2014 aug 12the tracert groupTraceRoute - freesoft.org`` Traceroute '' is a network debugging utility that attempts to trace the path a packet ... In a typical traceroute session, a group of packets with TTL=1 are sent.
     2  -1 2014 sep 25freesoftfreesoft .orgThe rest of freesoft .org. Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia · The Soapbox · The Alaska Blog · Essays · Book Club · Wavelet Auditory Model · Guardian Alert
     2  +1 2014 sep 08in addrThe in-addr .arpa Domain - freesoft.orgThe in-addr .arpa Domain. DNS has a few special cases you need to be aware of. Probably the most important of these is the in-addr .arpa domain, which is used ...
     3  -1 2014 sep 27free soft
     3  +98 2014 sep 17collisn connect aldalta6.8 Connection collision detection. - freesoft.org6.8 Connection collision detection. If a pair of BGP speakers try simultaneously to establish a TCP connection to each other, then two parallel connections  ...
     3  +98 2014 sep 04collisn connect alldalta
     4  +4 2014 sep 11socket connections on a portSockets and Ports - freesoft.orgTCP multiplexes multiple connections to a single Internet host using sockets and ... A socket is not a port , though there is a close relationship between them.
     4  +97 2014 aug 14ip address cIP Address Classes - freesoft.orgIn the original Internet routing scheme developed in the 1970s, sites were assigned addresses from one of three classes: Class A, Class B and Class C . The ...
     4  +39 2014 jul 29ip lookup table11.1. Routing table lookup - freesoft.orgRouting table lookup . When an IP data packet is received, an OSPF router finds the routing table entry that best matches the packet's destination. This routing ...
     5  -3 2014 sep 12session bgp4BGP-4 Protocol Overview - freesoft.orgBorder Gateway Protocol Version 4 ( BGP-4 ), documented in RFC 1771, is the ... which makes long running BGP sessions more efficient than shorter ones.
     5  +96 2014 jul 24website list annonsy surfSurf Sites - freesoft.orgSurf Sites . These are a collection of links to various sites that I've found useful. ... CHOICE Web Reviews - "a list of 600 important Web Sites in all academic ...
     6  +5 2014 jul 22if-modified-since http header10.9 If - Modified - Since - freesoft.orgThe If - Modified - Since request- header field is used with the GET method to make it ... a 304 (not modified) response will be returned without any Entity-Body.
     7  +68 2014 sep 06ip address classAddress Classes . In the original Internet routing scheme developed in the 1970s, sites were assigned addresses from one of three classes : Class A, Class B and ...
     7  +94 2014 aug 30a class ipTo say that class -based IP addressing in still used would be true only in the loosest sense. Many addressing designs are still class -based, but an increasing  ...
     7  +35 2014 aug 12request for commentsRequests For Comments - freesoft.orgCare has been taken to preserve the content of the RFCs throughout, and the original text version of each RFC is available via a hyperlink from its Table of ...
     7  ~ 2014 jul 28the osi modelOSI Seven-Layer Model - freesoft.orgOSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking (the Basic Reference Model , or seven-layer model ), and a set of concrete protocols.
     7  +34 2014 jul 27rfc domain nameRFC 1035 - freesoft.orgDOMAIN NAMES - IMPLEMENTATION AND SPECIFICATION ... This RFC describes the details of the domain system and protocol, and assumes that the reader ...
     8  +18 2014 aug 14ip address classes
     8  +84 2014 jul 28osi model layersOSI Seven- Layer Model - freesoft.orgOSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking (the Basic Reference Model , or seven- layer model ), and a set of concrete protocols.
     9  +3 2014 sep 28class c ip address
     9  +3 2014 sep 18operation modelModel of Operation - freesoft.orgModel of Operation . The next several reading selections come from RFC 791, IP's Protocol Specification. Remember that IP's primary task is the delivery of data ...
     9  ~ 2014 sep 05function of pingPing - freesoft.orgIn an IP network, ` ping ' sends a short data burst - a single packet - and listens for a single packet in reply. Since this tests the most basic function of an IP network ...
     9  +10 2014 sep 02ip header formatIP Packet Structure - freesoft.orgAll IP packets are structured the same way - an IP header followed by a variable- length data field. ... The Version field indicates the format of the internet header .
     9  +63 2014 aug 27ip class a
     9  +39 2014 jul 17class c addressesAddress Classes - freesoft.org
     10  +16 2014 sep 26http rfcRFC 2068 - freesoft.orgThe Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It is a generic, stateless, ...
     10  +9 2014 sep 24osi model
     10  -1 2014 sep 15checksum secret key6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications - freesoft.orgThe Key Distribution Center for each realm is trusted by all principals registered in that realm to store a secret key in confidence. Proof of knowledge of this secret  ...
     10  +8 2014 sep 10internet historyInternet History - freesoft.orgThe Internet as we know it today, in the mid-1990s, traces it origins back to a ... The 1987 Internet Worm was the largest security failure in the history of the ...
     10  +46 2014 sep 09hypertext referenceHypertext - freesoft.orgHypertext . Hypertext , made famous by the World Wide Web, is most simply a way of constructing documents that reference other documents. Within a hypertext  ...
     10  +91 2014 aug 31osi reference modelOSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking (the Basic Reference Model , or seven-layer model), and a set of concrete protocols.
     10  +32 2014 aug 23ticket granting ticket3.3. The Ticket - Granting Service (TGS) Exchange - freesoft.orgThe TGS exchange between a client and the Kerberos Ticket - Granting Server is initiated by a client when it wishes to obtain authentication credentials for a ...
     10  +69 2014 aug 20class c ip addresses
     10  +64 2014 jul 28ip class bIn the original Internet routing scheme developed in the 1970s, sites were assigned addresses from one of three classes: Class A, Class B and Class C. The ...
     10  +76 2014 jul 21class a ip addressIn the original Internet routing scheme developed in the 1970s, sites were assigned addresses from one of three classes : Class A, Class B and Class C. The ...
     11  +5 2014 sep 26class c ip
     11  ~ 2014 aug 10http header formatTCP Header Format - freesoft.orgTCP Header Format . TCP segments are sent as internet datagrams. The Internet Protocol header carries several information fields, including the source and ...
     11  +90 2014 aug 02layers of networkOSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking (the Basic Reference Model, or seven- layer model), and a set of concrete protocols.
     11  +90 2014 jul 21class a ip
     12  -2 2014 sep 14bbox2 routing tableRouting Tables - freesoft.orgRouting Tables . Internet hosts use routing tables to compute the next hop for a packet. Routing tables can take many forms, but here is a simple model that can ...
     12  +15 2014 sep 02simple mail transfer protocolRFC 821 - freesoft.orgSIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL . Jonathan B. Postel. August 1982. Information Sciences Institute University of Southern California 4676 Admiralty Way
     12  +89 2014 aug 21c class ip addressIn the original Internet routing scheme developed in the 1970s, sites were assigned addresses from one of three classes : Class A, Class B and Class C . The ...
     12  +89 2014 jul 27primary name serverName Servers - freesoft.orgTypically, a single name server will be configured as the primary name server for a domain. For backup purposes, a number of other name servers may be ...
     12  +17 2014 jul 16verisign thawte consulting ccCertificates - freesoft.orgIt was issued (signed) by Thawte (since acquired by Verisign ), as stated in its Issuer ... O= Thawte Consulting cc , OU=Certification Services Division, CN= Thawte ...
     13  -1 2014 sep 29rfc http
     13  +34 2014 aug 28url character encoding2.2. URL Character Encoding Issues - freesoft.orgURL Character Encoding Issues. URLs are sequences of characters, i.e., letters, digits, and special characters. A URLs may be represented in a variety of ways: ...
     13  +88 2014 aug 25class a networkClass A addresses are the largest, but there are few of them. ... In any case, NIC would set the network bits, or n-bits, to some unique value and inform the local ...
     13  +88 2014 aug 22c-class ip address
     13  +48 2014 jul 27class c ips
     14  +15 2014 sep 14subnet maskSubnet Masks (cont) - freesoft.orgJust as there are nine possible eight bit numbers that meet the requirements for a subnet mask , so there are only thirty three such thirty two bits numbers.
     14  +14 2014 sep 05advertisement in header12.1. The Link State Advertisement Header - freesoft.orgThe link state advertisement header contains the LS type, Link State ID and Advertising Router fields. The combination of these three fields uniquely identifies ...
     14  +22 2014 sep 03dns spoofing15.8 DNS Spoofing - freesoft.org15.8 DNS Spoofing . Clients using HTTP rely heavily on the Domain Name Service, and are thus generally prone to security attacks based on the deliberate  ...
     14  +87 2014 sep 02http header fields14 Header Field Definitions - freesoft.org14 Header Field Definitions. This section defines the syntax and semantics of all standard HTTP /1.1 header fields . For entity- header fields , both sender and ...
     14  +87 2014 aug 21domain name pointerThe in-addr.arpa Domain - freesoft.orgARPA domain , since Internet network numbers are either 1, 2, or 3 octets. Network nodes are used to hold pointers to the primary host names of gateways ...
     14  +8 2014 aug 09what is rtcp6.3.1 SR: Sender report RTCP packet - freesoft.orgRTP Control Protocol -- RTCP Up: 6.3 Sender and Receiver Reports. Prev: 6.3 Sender and Receiver Reports Next: 6.3.2 RR: Receiver report RTCP packet ...
     14  ~ 2014 jul 28search a specific url5. BNF for specific URL schemes - freesoft.orgThis is a BNF-like description of the Uniform Resource Locator syntax, using the ... The generic form of a URL is: genericurl = scheme ":" schemepart ; Specific  ...
     14  ~ 2014 jul 19what is congestionCongestion collapse - freesoft.orgCongestion collapse. Before we proceed with a discussion of the two specific problems and their solutions, a description of what happens when these problems ...
     15  -1 2014 sep 22dig flagsDig I - freesoft.orgDig output begins with information about the command issued and the name server(s) used, then prints the resolver flags in use, then decodes the DNS  ...
     15  +86 2014 aug 27what is a ping`` Ping '' is one of the most useful network debugging tools available. It takes its name from a submarine sonar search - you send a short sound burst and listen for ...
     15  -1 2014 aug 01linke soft secretProject Description - freesoft.orgMany proprietary networking systems, such as SNA and IPX, have guarded their packet formats and details of protocol operation as trade secrets . Even ``open'' ...
     15  +45 2014 jul 21ip class c
     15  ~ 2014 jul 18open shortest path firstOSPF -2 Protocol Overview - freesoft.orgOSPF is a link-state routing protocol with a complex set of options and features. Not all of these features are available on all implementations, but some of its ...
     16  +7 2014 sep 30input type image8.1.2.5. Image Pixel: INPUT TYPE = IMAGE - freesoft.orgAn < INPUT > element with ` TYPE = IMAGE ' specifies an image resource to display, and allows input of two form fields: the x and y coordinate of a pixel chosen ...
     16  +35 2014 sep 23ping
     16  ~ 2014 sep 201980s business softwareThe software running on either end must be prepared to recognize data loss,
     16  +2 2014 sep 13arpaThe in-addr. arpa Domain - freesoft.orgThe in-addr. arpa Domain. DNS has a few special cases you need to be aware of. Probably the most important of these is the in-addr. arpa domain, which is used ...
     16  +17 2014 sep 07snmp trap pdu4.1.6. The Trap - PDU - freesoft.orgTrap - PDU ::= [4] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE { enterprise -- type of object generating ... The Trap - PDU is generated by a protocol entity only at the request of the SNMP  ...
     16  +78 2014 aug 19http connection closeTCP Connection Close - freesoft.orgCLOSE is an operation meaning "I have no more data to send." The notion of closing a full-duplex connection is subject to ambiguous interpretation, of course,  ...
     16  +54 2014 jul 28well known portswell known port numbers - freesoft.orgWELL KNOWN PORT NUMBERS The Well Known Ports are controlled and assigned by the IANA and on most systems can only be used by system (or root)  ...
     16  +85 2014 jul 24http transfer encoding5. The Content- Transfer - Encoding Header Field - freesoft.orgThis document specifies that such encodings will be indicated by a new "Content- Transfer - Encoding " header field. The Content- Transfer - Encoding field is used ...
     16  ~ 2014 jul 20tcp ports listPort Numbers - freesoft.orgPorts are used in the TCP [RFC793] to name the ends of logical connections which ... This list specifies the port used by the server process as its contact port .
     16  +43 2014 jul 19internet department of defenseDoD Networking Model - freesoft.orgThe first layered protocol model we will study is the 4-layer DoD Model. This is the model originally designed for the Internet , and is important because all of the  ...
     17  -8 2014 oct 01structure of ip addressAll IP packets are structured the same way - an IP header followed by a .... If the address in destination address field has been reached and the pointer is not ...
     17  +1 2014 sep 21canonical name3.6.2. Aliases and canonical names - freesoft.orgAliases and canonical names . In existing systems, hosts and other resources often have several names that identify the same resource. For example, the names ...
     17  ~ 2014 aug 18border gateway protocol7.3.2 BORDER GATEWAY PROTOCOL - BGP - freesoft.org7.3.2 BORDER GATEWAY PROTOCOL - BGP ... Up: 7. APPLICATION LAYER - ROUTING PROTOCOLS Up: 7.3 EXTERIOR GATEWAY PROTOCOLS.
     18  -6 2014 oct 01second level domainsDomain Names - freesoft.orgInternet domains form the basis of the common Internet naming scheme. ... The root domain is com, the second level label is cnn, and the third level is www.
     18  +5 2014 sep 26igmpIGMP Protocol Overview - freesoft.orgInternet Group Management Protocol ( IGMP ), documented in Appendix I of RFC 1112, allows Internet hosts to participate in multicasting. RFC 1112 describes ...
     18  +83 2014 sep 25sname server7.3. Server Receives BOOTREQUEST - freesoft.orgIf the server name field ( sname ) is null (no particular server specified), or sname is specified and matches our name or nickname, then continue with packet ...
     18  +60 2014 aug 27routing information protocolRIP Protocol Overview - freesoft.orgPorted to TCP/IP when LANs first appeared in the early 80s, RIP has changed little in the past decade and suffers from several limitations, some of which have ...
     18  +9 2014 jul 23routing table example11.3. Sample routing table , with areas - freesoft.orgConsider the previous example , this time split into OSPF areas. An OSPF area configuration is pictured in Figure 6. Router RT4's routing table will be described  ...
     19  +6 2014 sep 27esther blessing bzu1 - freesoft.org49tn The construction is the active participle of bzu with the article, serving as an
     19  +82 2014 sep 02302 moved temporarily10.3.3 302 Moved Temporarily - freesoft.org10.3.3 302 Moved Temporarily . The requested resource resides temporarily under a different URI. Since the redirection may be altered on occasion, the client  ...
     19  +38 2014 aug 16lan and wanLANs and WANs - freesoft.orgLocal Area Networks ( LANs ) and Wide Area Networks( WANs ) are generic terms referring to two important basic types of networks. Let me try to summarize the ...
     19  +30 2014 jul 30cache control directives14.9 Cache - Control - freesoft.orgThe Cache - Control general-header field is used to specify directives that MUST be obeyed by all caching mechanisms along the request/response chain.
     19  +28 2014 jul 16tt domain nameThe < TT >in-addr.arpa</ TT > Domain - freesoft.orgProbably the most important of these is the in-addr.arpa domain, which is used to convert 32-bit numeric IP addresses back into domain names . This is used, for ...
     20  -4 2014 sep 30tcp ackWe assume that the TCP will signal a user, even if no RECEIVEs are ... If an unsolicited FIN arrives from the network, the receiving TCP can ACK it and tell the  ...
     20  +5 2014 sep 19traceroute`` Traceroute '' is a network debugging utility that attempts to trace the path a packet takes through the network - its route. A key word here is ``attempts'' - by no  ...
     20  +81 2014 sep 18arp cache ttl time2.3.2.1 ARP Cache Validation - freesoft.orgThe ARP specification [LINK:2] suggests but does not require a timeout mechanism to invalidate cache entries when hosts change their Ethernet addresses.
     20  -5 2014 sep 13networking model 5 layerDoD Networking Model . The first layered protocol model we will study is the 4- layer DoD Model . This is the model originally designed for the Internet, and is ...
     20  +76 2014 sep 06html base url10. Appendix - Embedding the Base URL in HTML documentsIn this appendix, we describe how documents written in the Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML ) [3] can include an embedded base URL . This appendix does  ...
     20  +51 2014 aug 21lost number sequenceSequence Numbers - freesoft.orgIt is essential to remember that the actual sequence number space is finite, though very .... from a crash in which memory of sequence numbers in use was lost .
     20  ~ 2014 aug 09second level domain
     20  +81 2014 aug 03http header keep-alive19.7.1.1 The Keep - Alive Header - freesoft.orgUp: 19.7.1 Compatibility with HTTP /1.0 Persistent Connections ... transmitted with a request or a response , a Keep - Alive header field MAY also be included.
     20  +48 2014 jul 16when was internet inventedThe Internet as we know it today, in the mid-1990s, traces it origins back to a Defense Department project in 1969. The subject of the project was wartime digital ...
     21  +5 2014 sep 28subnettingSubnetting and CIDR - freesoft.orgSubnetting and CIDR. IP Addressing Review · Binary Numbering Review · Hierarchical Addressing · Binary Hierarchy · Address Prefix Syntax · A Real Example ...
     21  +80 2014 sep 13checksum info softThe checksum field is the 16 bit one's complement of the one's complement sum of all 16 bit words in the header and text. If a segment contains an odd number ...
     21  +45 2014 sep 03wan and lan
     21  ~ 2014 aug 29interior gateway protocolA.2.2 Tagged Interior Gateway Protocol - freesoft.orgA.2.2 Tagged Interior Gateway Protocol . Certain IGPs can tag routes exterior to an AS with the identity of their exit points while propagating them within the AS.
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