Assignments — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresAn interactive version of Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures
using Python. Introduction - Algorithm Analysis - Stacks - Sorting

Introduction — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresTo review the ideas of computer science, programming , and problem- solving . To
understand abstraction and the role it plays in the problem- solving process.

Welcome to Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures An interactive version of Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures
using Python . Introduction - Stacks - Sorting - Algorithm Analysis

Recursion — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresRecursion is a method of solving problems that involves breaking a problem
down .... In the remainder of this chapter we will look at more examples of
recursion .

Strings — How to Think like a Computer Scientist: Interactive EditionOn the other hand, strings and lists are different from the others because they are
made up of smaller pieces. In the case of strings , they are made up of smaller ...

Graphs - InteractivePython.orgObjectives¶. To learn what a graph is and how it is used. To implement the graph
abstract data type using multiple internal representations. To see how graphs ...

Sorting and Searching - Runestone InteractiveSearching¶. We will now turn our attention to some of the most common problems
that arise in computing, those of searching and sorting . In this section we will ...

Welcome to Java for Python Programmers - InteractivePython.orgWelcome to Java for Python Programmers¶. Contents: Preface · Introduction ·
Why Learn another programming Language? Why Learn Java ? Why not C or
C++ ...

Stacks — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresFigure 3 shows the Python data object stack as it was created and then again ...
The stack abstract data type is defined by the following structure and operations.

Trees — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresTrees are used in many areas of computer science, including operating systems,
graphics, database systems, and computer networking. Tree data structures ...

Balanced Binary Search Trees - InteractivePython.orgIf the balance factor is zero then the tree is perfectly in balance. ... Our claim is
that by ensuring that a tree always has a balance factor of -1, 0, or 1 we can get ...

The challenge then is to write an algorithm that will read a string of parentheses
from left to right and ..... Table 4: Additional Examples of Infix , Prefix , and Postfix ...

Queues — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresQueues ¶. We now turn our attention to another linear data structure . This one is
called queue . Like stacks, queues are relatively simple and yet can be used to ...

Recursion - InteractivePython .orgUsually recursion involves a function calling itself. While it may not seem like
much on the surface, recursion allows us to write elegant solutions to problems
that ...

To understand what a tree data structure is and how it is used. To see how trees
can be used to implement a map data structure. To implement trees using a list.

Why Study Data Structures and Abstract Data Types? Why Study Algorithms?
Review of Basic Python · Getting Started with Data · Built-in Atomic Data Types ...

Shortest Path Problems — Problem Solving with Algorithms and The algorithm we are going to use to determine the shortest path is called “
Dijkstra's algorithm .” Dijkstra's algorithm is an iterative algorithm that provides us
with ...

Binary Search Trees - InteractivePython.orgA binary search tree relies on the property that keys that are less than the parent
are found in the left subtree, and keys that are greater than the parent are found ...

Lists - InteractivePython .orgLists ¶. A list is a sequential collection of Python data values, where each value is
identified by an index. .... a) Error, you cannot use the upper method on a list .

Classes and Objects - the Basics - InteractivePython.orgNow that we understand what a point object might look like, we can define a new
class . We'll want our points to each have an x and a y attribute, so our first class ...

Sorting - InteractivePython.orgSorting ¶. Sorting is the process of placing elements from a collection in some
kind of order. For example, a list of words could be sorted alphabetically or by ...

Welcome to Java for Python Programmers¶. Contents: ... Why Learn Java ? Why
not C or C++? Lets look at a Java Program · Java Data Types · Numeric · String ...

Depth First Search - InteractivePython.orgThe search algorithm we will use to solve the knight's tour problem is called
depth first search (DFS). Whereas the breadth first search algorithm discussed in
the ...

Graphs — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresGraphs can be used to represent many interesting things about our world ,
including ... While it is relatively easy for humans to look at a road map and
understand the ... of graphs , we will more formally define a graph and its
components .

Trees are used in many areas of computer science , including operating systems,
graphics, database systems, and computer networking. Tree data structures ...

Week 11: ends April 4, 2014 - InteractivePython.orgIf you tried to make a “ fork ” of Linux today, would it be technically feasible to do so
? ... Why would the promise of switching to use something like git have helped to
defuse a potential forking of the Linux project ? Run ... a) git clone newone .txt

Sorting — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresSorting¶. Sorting is the process of placing elements from a collection in some
kind of order . For example, a list of words could be sorted alphabetically or by ...

Algorithm Analysis - InteractivePython.orgAlgorithm analysis is concerned with comparing algorithms based upon the
amount of computing resources that each algorithm uses. We want to be able to ...

Our claim is that by ensuring that a tree always has a balance factor of -1, 0, or 1
.... If the balance factor of the parent is non-zero then the algorithm continues to ...

Variables , Expressions and Statements - InteractivePython.orga) Print out the value and determine the data type based on the value printed . b)
Use the type .... A value all by itself is a simple expression , and so is a variable .

Lists ¶. A list is a sequential collection of Python data values, where each value ...
As with strings, the function len returns the length of a list (the number of items ...

Object -oriented programming has its roots in the 1960s, but it wasn't until the mid
1980s that it became the main programming paradigm used in the creation of ...

How to Think like a Computer Scientist - InteractivePython.orgPython Turtle Graphics ¶. Hello Little ... More About Iteration ¶ ... GNU Free
Documentation License · ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your
documents ...

Computer science can be thought of as the study of algorithms . ... We can fully
define computer science, then, by including both types of problems and stating ...

Hello, Little Turtles ! - InteractivePython.orgIn this chapter we will introduce a module that allows us to create a data object
called a turtle that can be used to draw pictures. Turtle graphics , as it is known, ...

Searching — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresIn this section we will study searching . We will return to sorting later in the chapter
. Searching is the algorithmic process of finding a particular item in a collection ...

Complex Recursive Problems - InteractivePython.orgAs long as we always obey the rule that the larger disks remain on the bottom of
the stack, we can use the three steps above recursively , treating any larger disks
...

Figure 2 shows a small example of a weighted graph that represents the ...
Dijkstra's algorithm is an iterative algorithm that provides us with the shortest path
...

Lists — Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data StructuresThe basic building block for the linked list implementation is the node. Each node
object must hold at least two pieces of information. First, the node must contain ...

Sorting ¶. Sorting is the process of placing elements from a collection in some
kind of ... There are many, many sorting algorithms that have been developed
and ...

Note that indexing returns a string — Python has no special type for a single
character. It is just a ... Each string instance has its own attributes and methods .

Welcome to Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures ¶ ... The
Unordered List Abstract Data Type · Implementing an Unordered List : Linked
Lists ...

Hiding in Plain Sight — Everyday Python 1.0 - InteractivePython .orgPNG images on the other hand use a lossless compression, this means that you
... Lets take a look at the Python operators that allow us to manipulate the bits of ...

Variables , Expressions and Statements - Runestone InteractiveIn the Python shell, it is not necessary to use the print function to see the values
shown above. .... sdat-1: How can you determine the type of a variable ? a) Print ...

Balanced Binary Search Trees - Runestone InteractiveAn AVL tree implements the Map abstract data type just like a regular binary
search tree, the only difference is in how the tree performs. To implement our AVL
...

Lists — How to Think like a Computer Scientist: Interactive EditionA list within another list is said to be nested and the inner list is often called a
sublist. Finally, there is a special list that contains no elements. It is called the
empty ...

Hello, Little Turtles! - Runestone InteractiveThere are many modules in Python that provide very powerful features that ..... In
Python , the for statement allows us to write programs that implement iteration.

Dictionaries - InteractivePython .orgOne way to create a dictionary is to start with the empty dictionary and add ...
Python uses complex algorithms, designed for very fast access, to determine
where ...

Strings - InteractivePython .orgStrings Revisited¶. Throughout the first chapters of this book we have used
strings to represent words or phrases that we wanted to print out. Our definition
was ...

Solution: A Better Password Generator — Everyday Python 1.0One way to guarantee that we will have at least one uppercase and one
lowercase letter is to first generate a password of all lower case letters, and then
...

Modules and Getting Help - InteractivePython.orgA module is a file containing Python definitions and statements intended for use
in other Python programs. There are many Python modules that come with ...

Yesterday we looked at a simple password generator to make a string from a
group of random characters. Your assignment was to improve on that to add
capital ...

Graphs are a more general structure than the trees we studied in the last chapter;
in fact you can think of a tree as a special kind of graph . Graphs can be used to ...

Its Only a Little Math — Everyday Python 1.0 - Runestone InteractiveIn case its been a while since you had math class, here is a quick definition of a
prime number . A Prime number can be divided evenly only by 1 or itself. And ...

An AVL tree implements the Map abstract data type just like a regular binary ...
We can use this fact to derive a formula for the height of an AVL tree given the ...

In this section we will study binary search trees as yet another way to map ... In
the case where the tree is empty or we want to delete the key at the root of the ...

Generating an XKCD Password — Everyday Python 1.0If you are using a Mac (or Linux), you have a big file of words, over 120,000 of
them, on your computer in /usr/share/dict/words There are also some Python ...

Arrays in Java — JavaReview - Runestone InteractiveArrays are useful whenever you have several elements of data of the same type
that you want to keep track of, but you don't need to name each one. If you want ...

Without going into the math, just yet, the idea is that rather than a random string of
characters, make a password out of four random words. Its easier to remember ...

Breadth First Search - InteractivePython.orgbetween the words as a graph. Use the graph algorithm known as breadth first
search to find an efficient path from the starting word to the ending word.

Simple Python Data¶ ... Working with Data Files · Finding a File on your Disk ·
Reading a File · Iterating over lines in a file · Alternative File Reading Methods ...

Lists ¶. A list is a sequential collection of Python data values, where each value
..... it refers to a completely new list formed by making copies of the items from
fruit ...

Functions - InteractivePython.orgIn Python , a function is a named sequence of statements that belong together. ...
A body consisting of one or more Python statements, each indented the same ...

Dictionaries - Runestone InteractiveDictionaries have a number of useful built-in methods . The following table
provides a summary and more details can be found in the Python Documentation
.