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     1  +3 2014 sep 16atabatʿATABĀT – Encyclopaedia IranicaʿATABĀT “thresholds,” more fully, ʿatabāt -e ʿalīyāt or ʿatabāt -e (or aʿtāb-e) moqaddasa “the lofty or sacred thresholds,” the Shiʿite shrine cities of ...
     1  ~ 2014 sep 03gorginGORGIN – Encyclopaedia IranicaGORGIN , son of Milād, one of the heroes of the reigns of Kay Kāvus and Kay Ḵosrow (Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, III, p. 11,) and the head of the ...
     1  ~ 2014 jul 30musa overschie import exportDUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS – Encyclopaedia IranicaMūsā Beg embarked with several merchants carrying silk for sale in the Netherlands
     2  ~ 2014 sep 14tag order dedeDEDE ʿOMAR RŪŠANĪ – Encyclopaedia IranicaDede ʿOmar studied at Bursa with Jandārlı Ebrāhīm Pasha (d. ... While actively propagating the order in the regions of Qarabāḡ, Bardaʿa, Ganja, and Tabrīz, he met ... (Optional) Enter email address if you would like feedback about your tag .
     2  +1 2014 sep 10blessed lahutiLAHUTI , Abu'l-Qasem – Encyclopaedia IranicaIn his autobiographical account, Lahuti recalls the financial ... During Neẓām-al Salṭana's term in office Lahuti lived in .... Bless thee heart!
     2  +1 2014 aug 23rasht old mapRASHT i. The City – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe old city is not surrounded by gated walls, and the bazaar is open, ... the first map of Rasht was made (accessible in the city hall of Rasht ).
     2  ~ 2014 aug 21qays tribe immigrationʿARAB iv. Arab tribes of Iran – Encyclopaedia IranicaAn additional group of Arab immigrants reached Khorasan in 63/683. Among those transplanted from Iraq were substantial parts of the Tamīm and Qays tribes  ...
     2  +41 2014 aug 12persian e commerceCOMMERCE ii. In the Achaemenid period – Encyclopaedia IranicaCOMMERCE ii. In the ... In the Achaemenid period trade, both within the empire and outside it, .... A. T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire , Chicago, 1948.
     3  -2 2014 sep 16carduchiCARDUCHI – Encyclopaedia IranicaCARDUCHI (Latin form of Greek Kardoûkhoi), warlike tribes that in antiquity occupied the hilly country along the upper Tigris near the Assyrian and Median ...
     3  +98 2014 sep 12دانش نامہEncyclopædia Iranica | HomeMulti-disciplinary reference work on the lands, life, culture and history of all Iranian peoples and their interaction with other societies. Subscription required for ...
     3  ~ 2014 sep 11sultan sanjarSANJAR , Aḥmad b. Malekšāh – Encyclopaedia IranicaAs Great Sultan Sanjar ordered massacres of Ismaʿilis in Khorasan in 520/1126, as well as in the following year when he led a campaign ...
     3  +63 2014 sep 06alansALANS – Encyclopaedia IranicaALANS , an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries A.D. (see, e.g., ...
     3  ~ 2014 sep 01abul fazlABU 'L- FAŻL ʿALLĀMĪ – Encyclopaedia IranicaABU 'L- FAŻL ʿALLĀMĪ, historian, officer, chief secretary, and confidant of the Mughal emperor Akbar I. Born on 6 Moḥarram 958/14 January 1551, he was the  ...
     3  ~ 2014 aug 23persian court lifeWOMEN i. In Pre-Islamic Persia – Encyclopaedia IranicaWhile the accommodation of the women of the court in a designated area ... and Amytis saving the life of Megabyzus (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 13).
     3  +1 2014 aug 06china boundary commissionBOUNDARIES iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan – Encyclopaedia Iranica2,430 km), and China on the northeast (76 km). .... According to the British members of the commission , the boundary was “only an arbitrary line based on the ...
     4  -1 2014 sep 18masjed jame esfahan planIsfahan x. Monuments (3) Mosques – Encyclopaedia IranicaAmong all the mosques of Isfahan , the Masjed -e Jāmeʿ occupies the ... focused mosque plan , this mosque exemplifies the maturation of the ...
     4  -1 2014 sep 15massive area azerbaijanAZERBAIJAN i. Geography – Encyclopaedia Iranica100.18) indicates that Azerbaijan extended to the north of the river. .... precipitated the massive entry of Turks into Azerbaijan , and the area became definitively ...
     4  -1 2014 jul 22viva club iranianViva Iranica! – Encyclopaedia IranicaVIVA IRANICA! is a new fundraising campaign by the Encyclopaedia Iranica F. ... as a Club 1000 member in the newsletter of the Center for Iranian Studies, ...
     5  +1 2014 sep 28dragon carpet keir collectionCARPETS viii. Il-khanid and Timurid Periods – Encyclopaedia IranicaPart of a large octagon with a dragon -like animal in the foreground can be ... F. Spuhler, Islamic Carpets and Textiles in the Keir Collection , London, 1978. Idem  ...
     5  -2 2014 sep 10anshanANSHAN – Encyclopaedia IranicaANSHAN (or ANZAN), the name of an important Elamite region in western Fārs and of its chief city. Akkadian and Sumerian texts of the late third millennium B.C.  ...
     5  -1 2014 sep 08lahutiLAHUTI , Abu'l-Qasem (Abu'l-Qāsem Lāhuti , b. Kermānšāh, 12 October 1887; d. Moscow, 16 March 1957), Marxist poet, political activist, and an ...
     5  ~ 2014 sep 06khalkhalKHALKHAL – Encyclopaedia IranicaKHALKHAL (Ḵalḵāl), the southeasternmost district of Azerbaijan. Its main city and administrative center, Heruābād, is located at lat 37°28′ N, ...
     5  +2 2014 sep 02iranian candle lampCANDLESTICKS – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe earliest extant candlesticks from Islamic Iran , most of which are datable to ... functioned as the base or support for an oil lamp (Melikian-Chirvani,1987, fig.
     5  -4 2014 aug 22greek inscription persiaGreek inscriptions from ancient Iran – Encyclopaedia IranicaSince those early days of modern Greek epigraphy, the number of .... A short trilingual (Middle Persian , Parthian, and Greek ) inscription on the ...
     5  +4 2014 aug 16iran ceramic industryBRICKS AND CERAMICS INDUSTRY – Encyclopaedia IranicaBRICKS AND CERAMICS INDUSTRY IN IRAN . Iran is rich in clay, marl, feldspar, silicate, limestone, gypsum, bentonite, talc, kaolin, quartz, and ...
     5  +2 2014 aug 02rock cut altarsDARRA-YE BARRA – Encyclopaedia IranicaSeveral rock - cut monuments are scattered on steep scree and in the cliff on the north side of the valley. The most outstanding feature is the tallest fire altar so far  ...
     6  +7 2014 sep 14jamlal uddin afghaniAFḠĀNĪ, JAMĀL -AL-DĪN – Encyclopaedia IranicaOther primary documentation is found in N. R. Keddie, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din “al- Afghani ”: A Political Biography, Berkeley, 1972.) Life. Jamāl -al-dīn was born in ...
     6  +5 2014 sep 06first afghan warANGLO- AFGHAN WARS – Encyclopaedia IranicaFirst Anglo- Afghan War (1838-42), Second Anglo- Afghan War (1878-80), Third Anglo- Afghan War (1919).
     6  -3 2014 jul 18hindu kush mountain rangeHINDU KUSH – Encyclopaedia IranicaHINDU KUSH , the name given to the southwest range of the massive middle and south Asiatic mountain complex lying partly in Afghanistan ...
     7  ~ 2014 sep 22in the shadows fribourg rasmusCODICES HAFNIENSES – Encyclopaedia Iranicaforty-three Avestan and Pahlavi codices acquired by Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787 -1832) in Bombay, India, ..... 38-39) on the length of a man's shadow at noon and in the afternoon (tr. ..... J. de Menasce, Škand-gumānīk vičār, Fribourg , 1945.
     7  +3 2014 sep 17golden age yimaJAMŠID i. Myth of Jamšid – Encyclopaedia IranicaMYTH OF JAMŠID. In the Avesta (q.v.), several myths are associated with Yima . He ruled the world in a golden age ; he saved living beings from ...
     7  +6 2014 sep 14آوانAWAN – Encyclopaedia IranicaAWAN, name of a place in ancient western Iran, the nominal dynastic seat of Elamite rulers in the late third millennium B.C.; its location is unknown. Three rulers ...
     7  +18 2014 sep 06glass radiator iranIRAN NATIONAL COMPANY – Encyclopaedia IranicaIRAN NATIONAL COMPANY, founded by brothers Aḥmad and Maḥmud Khayami
     7  +7 2014 sep 06persian or arabicARABIC LANGUAGE i. Arabic elements in Persian – Encyclopaedia ARABIC LANGUAGE. i. Arabic elements in Persian . The profound influence of Arabic in Iran can be traced to its social, religious, and political significance in the  ...
     7  +6 2014 aug 22eic india turkeyEAST INDIA COMPANY (BRITISH) – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe East India Company initially had 125 shareholders and was capitalized at ... from Turkey , thereby depriving the Ottomans of silk supplies and transit dues, ...
     7  -2 2014 jul 22candlestick base and supportA type of small candlestick with polygonal, concave base may have ... as the base or support for an oil lamp (Melikian-Chirvani,1987, fig. 1), or ...
     7  +21 2014 jul 22trees in iranOLIVE TREE – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe olive tree was also cultivated in Iran as of about 3000 BCE and, as the Persian loanword for both the olive tree and its fruit (zaytun) ...
     7  -2 2014 jul 17saate rasmiye iranRUZ-NĀMA-YE RASMI -E DAWLAT-E IRĀN – Encyclopaedia IranicaRUZ-NĀMA-YE RASMI -E DAWLAT-E IRĀN (The Official Journal of the Government of Iran ), a newspaper published in Tehran as the official ...
     8  +3 2014 oct 03modern sport iranARMENIANS OF MODERN IRAN – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe popularity of modern fast-food establishments in Iran owes much of its original ..... It recently acquired a sport stadium of its own with the capacity of 10,000.
     8  +1 2014 sep 25acta iranicaCYRUS iv. The Cyrus cylinder – Encyclopaedia IranicaJ. Harmatta, “Les modèles littéraires de l'édit babylonien de Cyrus,” in Commémoration Cyrus. Hommage universel I, Acta Iranica 1, Tehran and Liège, 1974, pp.
     8  +15 2014 sep 12adab in islamADAB ii. Adab in Arabic Literature – Encyclopaedia IranicaADAB . ii. Adab in Arabic Literature. In modern Arabic usage the term adab (plur. ādāb ) denotes “literature,” but in classical Islam it was applied only to a limited ...
     8  ~ 2014 sep 09moaven ol malekBAHĀR, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica3), he was rewarded with his father's title of Malek -al-Šoʿarāʾ, and thus .... his style ranging from emulations (esteqbāl) of the old masters (e.g., Dīvān I, p. 284)  ...
     8  ~ 2014 sep 09al fahaniADĪB- AL -MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ – Encyclopaedia IranicaHe was there honored with the little of Amīr- al -šoʿarāʾ, and he then changed ... Munibur Rahman, “Adib- Al -Mamalek Farahani ,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/5, p.
     8  -6 2014 aug 26william edmund ironsideIRONSIDE , WILLIAM EDMUND – Encyclopaedia IranicaIRONSIDE , WILLIAM EDMUND , Field Marshall, 1st Baron Ironside of Archangel and Ironside (b. Edinburgh, 6 May 1880; d. London, 22 ...
     8  -1 2014 aug 25persische teppiche buch kollektionGERMANY vi. Collections and Study of Persian Art in GermanyBayerische Staatsbibliothek München, Das Buch in Orient: Handschriften und kostbare Drucke .... Idem, Persische Teppiche , Hamburg, 1971.
     8  -3 2014 aug 07seal ring animal motifCYLINDER SEALS – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe seals of ancient Persia correspond in their types and use to those of Mesopotamia,
     8  +2 2014 jul 31giving gifts in iranGIFT GIVING i, ii, iii – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe subject of gift giving is often treated in the humanities and the ... period looked back on the traditions of pre-Islamic Iran and its rulers for ...
     9  -2 2014 sep 20title raw pesianCARPETS ii. Raw materials and dyes – Encyclopaedia IranicaRaw Materials And Dyes. For centuries Persian carpet weaving has depended primarily on local materials processed by traditional techniques. The introduction  ...
     9  +1 2014 sep 10adab
     9  -2 2014 aug 07living rock altarSeveral rock-cut monuments are scattered on steep scree and in the cliff on the ... is the tallest fire altar so far found in Fārs. It is cut from the living rock in the ...
     10  +10 2014 oct 03miniature iranian carpetsCARPETS iv. Knotted-pile carpets : Designs – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe most common design format in Persian carpets is a central field (matn; .... and depictions of floor coverings and textiles in miniature paintings (see vii, viii, ...
     10  +32 2014 sep 28erevanEREVAN – Encyclopaedia IranicaErevan is located on a site that has been occupied for millennia. Today it is generally acknowledged that the name is to be traced to that of an 8th-century B.C.E. ...
     10  +2 2014 sep 18dehkhodaDEHḴODĀ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-AKBAR QAZVĪNĪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica(ca. 1879–1956), scholar, poet, and social critic. In all his writing Dehḵodā was a perfectionist and a meticulous craftsman.
     10  +91 2014 sep 16turkiet tahsin yazıcıYAZICI , Tahsin – Encyclopaedia IranicaYAZICI , Tahsin (b. Hoğas, 1338/1922; d. Istanbul, 20 November 2002), Turkish scholar of Persian language, literature, and culture (FIGURE 1).
     10  -3 2014 sep 12caspianseaCASPIAN SEA i. GEOGRAPHY – Encyclopaedia IranicaPhysical geography. I. Morphology and hydrology. The Caspian “sea ” consists of three distinct basins, each characterized by different features. The northern ...
     10  -2 2014 sep 10avicenna 28AVICENNA v. Mysticism – Encyclopaedia IranicaAvicenna's philosophical system, rooted in the Aristotelian tradition, ... 26- 28 ). Popular tradition in the East after Avicenna's death, however, partly misled by the  ...
     10  -1 2014 aug 22iran gift giving
     10  -2 2014 aug 18iran tour ziccuratZIGGURAT – Encyclopaedia IranicaIn Iran , buildings considered ziggurats or high temples can be distinguished from ..... A. Parrot, Ziggurats et tour de Babel, Paris, 1949.
     10  ~ 2014 aug 13british east india companyEAST INDIA COMPANY ( BRITISH ) – Encyclopaedia IranicaEAST INDIA COMPANY (THE BRITISH ), a trading company incorporated on 31 December 1600 for fifteen years with the primary purpose of exporting the staple  ...
     10  -2 2014 aug 08trip diary khuzestanḴAZʿAL KHAN – Encyclopaedia IranicaSo he gave away almost the whole of southern Khuzestan in such a way that,
     10  +7 2014 aug 06what is a braizerBRAZIER – Encyclopaedia IranicaBRAZIER (Pers. ātašdān “receptacle for fire,” Ar. Pers. manqal, lit. “means of carrying or transporting”), a “pan or stand for holding lighted coals” (The Concise  ...
     11  -6 2014 sep 12title raw persian
     11  +1 2014 aug 07history of afganistanAFGHANISTAN x. Political History – Encyclopaedia IranicaAFGHANISTAN . x. Political History . The year 1160/1747 marks the definitive appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of both the Safavid and ...
     11  +2 2014 jul 16painted cobalt blue glassCOBALT – Encyclopaedia Iranicaa chemical element that imparts a blue color to glass and glazes and to certain ... 108) but has been identified on painted pottery from Egypt of the 14th century ...
     12  ~ 2014 sep 18gooogle ارثرCHRISTENSEN, ARTHUR EMANUEL – Encyclopaedia IranicaCHRISTENSEN, ARTHUR EMANUEL (b. .... 129-41. Idem, “ Arthur Christensen. 9 . ... Google . Google +. Bookmarks. Google Reader. Google Translate. Hatena.
     12  ~ 2014 sep 12silver mosaic art banda amazonACHAEMENID DYNASTY – Encyclopaedia Iranica* banda ), a belt,” whose loyalty was generously remunerated and whose disloyalty was
     12  +7 2014 sep 05east india company historyThe East India Company initially had 125 shareholders and was capitalized .... The Cambridge Economic History of India, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1981-1983, I, pp.
     12  -5 2014 aug 29hatra ruins locationHATRA – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe ruins at the place called now Ḥażr, which still today are quite ... dynasty since the 1st century C.E. Its location in the Parthian-Roman border ...
     12  +3 2014 aug 27sayyid jamal al-dinAFḠĀNĪ, JAMĀL - AL - DĪN – Encyclopaedia IranicaOther primary documentation is found in N. R. Keddie, Sayyid Jamal ad-Din “al- Afghani”: A Political Biography, Berkeley, 1972.) Life. Jamāl- al - dīn was born in ...
     12  ~ 2014 aug 21hunting in iranHUNTING IN IRAN – Encyclopaedia Iranicai. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period. See Supplement. Persian has two terms for hunting , naḵjīr and šekār.
     12  -1 2014 aug 15babor lack classicBĀBOR , ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe lack of a succession law and the presence of many Timurid males .... Bābor's diary, which has become one of the classic autobiographies of world literature, ...
     12  -3 2014 aug 08university of tehranFACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN i. FacultyThe Faculty of Agriculture of Karaj (Dāneškada-ye kešāvarzī-e Karaj) was originally founded in Tehran as the College of Agronomy (Madrasa-ye ʿālī-e fa.
     12  +10 2014 aug 08cyrus the greatCYRUS iii. Cyrus II The Great – Encyclopaedia IranicaCyrus II the Great (also known to the Greeks as Cyrus the Elder; b. ca. 600 B.C.E., d. 530 B.C.E.) was the founder of the Achaemenid empire.
     12  +6 2014 jul 16kalila wa dimnaKALILA WA DEMNA i. Redactions and circulation – Encyclopaedia In Persian literature Kalila wa Demna has been known in different ... Esin Atıl, Kalila wa Dimna : Fables from a Fourteenth-Century Arabic ...
     13  -7 2014 sep 23julius welhausenWELLHAUSEN , JULIUS – Encyclopaedia IranicaWELLHAUSEN , JULIUS (b. Hameln, Germany, 17 May 1844; d. Göttingen, 17 January 1918, Figure 1), scholar of Biblical studies, who ...
     13  -3 2014 sep 09demnaKALILA WA DEMNA ii. The translation by Abu' – Encyclopaedia IranicaKALILA WA DEMNA ii. The translation by Abu'l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši. Naṣr- Allāh's Persian version of the Kalila wa Dimna is not a ...
     13  +1 2014 sep 01mohan lal buddha sculptureEXCAVATIONS ii. In Afghanistan – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe spectacular Buddhist monuments of Bāmīān (q.v.), for example, ... Russian ( N. I. Grodekov, J. L. Yavorski), Indian ( Mohan Lal ) to name but a few. .... uncovered a wealth of Buddhist and Hindu sculpture (M. Taddei and G.
     13  +12 2014 aug 24migratory fish persian gulfFISH ii. SALT WATER FISHES – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. ... connection with subtropical and tropical seas allows seasonal migration of some non-indigenous fishes and marine ...
     13  ~ 2014 jul 30iranian oil companyANGLO-PERSIAN OIL COMPANY – Encyclopaedia IranicaŠERKAT-E NAFT-E ENGELĪS O IRAN ), a British company formed to extract and market oil in the oil fields of southwestern Iran .
     14  +4 2014 sep 29ظیگوراتZIGGURAT (Akkadian ziqqurratu “temple-tower”), a tower consisting of several stages, on whose uppermost platform existed in all probability a ...
     14  ~ 2014 sep 27naskSŪDGAR NASK and WARŠTMĀNSR NASK – Encyclopaedia Iranicathe first and second of three commentaries on the Old Avesta, extant in a Pahlavi resume in book nine of the Dēnkard, the third being the Bag nask .
     14  +29 2014 sep 2518th century asia mapCENTRAL ASIA vii. In the 18th -19th Centuries – Encyclopaedia IranicaCENTRAL ASIA . vii. In the 18th-19th Centuries. I. From the fall of the Toqay- Timurids through the Russian conquest. By the beginning of the 12th/ 18th century  ...
     14  -7 2014 sep 24ostrakon florentinumCALENDARS – Encyclopaedia Iranicathe use of the Zoroastrian calendar is attested is an ostracon referring to the .... spelling of the month names (see, e.g., Hemerologium Florentinum in Ginzel).
     14  +5 2014 sep 24زیگورات
     14  -3 2014 sep 20persian bibleBIBLE iv. Middle Persian Translations – Encyclopaedia IranicaBIBLE . iv. Middle Persian Translations of the Bible . We have knowledge of Bible translations into Middle Persian at least from the fifth century A.D. onwards.
     14  ~ 2014 aug 31darius the medeDARIUS ii. Darius the Mede – Encyclopaedia IranicaIn the Old Testament Book of Daniel Darius the Mede is mentioned (5:30-31) as ruler after the slaying of the “Chaldean king” Belshazzar.
     14  ~ 2014 aug 27mark dresden webdesignDRESDEN , MARK JAN – Encyclopaedia IranicaDRESDEN , MARK JAN (b. Amsterdam, 26 April 1911; d. Philadelphia, 16 August 1986), American iranist of Dutch origin. He was born to a family of eminent ...
     14  -3 2014 aug 10history of afghanistan
     15  ~ 2014 oct 02g dari googleDARĪ – Encyclopaedia IranicaDARĪ , name given to the New Persian literary language at a very early date and .... G . Lazard, “La dialectologie du judéo-persan,” in Studies in Bibliography and ... Google . Google +. Bookmarks. Google Reader. Google Translate. Hatena.
     15  ~ 2014 sep 08mail kerman eduoKERMAN i. Geography – Encyclopaedia IranicaKerman Province is situated in southeast Iran, to the southwest of the Kavir-e ..... Philip H. T. Beckett and E. D. Gordon, “Land Use and Settlement Round .... mail . ru. Meneame. Messenger. Mr Wong. moShare. MySpace. N4G.
     15  -3 2014 sep 02khodahafez tehran samuel khachikianKHACHIKIAN , Samuel – Encyclopaedia IranicaKHACHIKIAN , Samuel ( Sāmuʾel Ḵāčikiān), Iranian filmmaker (b. 20 October 1923, Tabriz; d. 21 October 2001, Tehran ; FIGURE 1). He was ...
     15  +86 2014 aug 17aq qoyonlou mapsAQ QOYUNLŪ – Encyclopaedia IranicaAQ QOYUNLŪ or WHITE SHEEP, a confederation of Turkman tribes who ruled in eastern Anatolia and western Iran until the Safavid conquest in ...
     15  +86 2014 jul 24soil of afganisthanAFGHANISTAN i. Geography – Encyclopaedia IranicaSoils . Soils in Afghanistan clearly show the impact of centuries of overuse and neglect (Hildreth 1957, p. 9). Descriptions herein are based primarily on the ...
     15  +1 2014 jul 22amin farsi voice talentKĀNUN-vi. Music and Sound Production – Encyclopaedia IranicaIn less than eight years, thanks in no small part to the talent and
     15  +43 2014 jul 20honey pre ppHONEY – Encyclopaedia IranicaM. J. Maškur, Tehran, 1968, pp . ... In pre -Islamic lore and traditions. From pre - lslamic (Sasanian) times we have a few references to honey and ...
     16  +9 2014 sep 19indian dynastieSAFAVID DYNASTY – Encyclopaedia IranicaThe period of the Safavids, the dynasty that took control of Persia in the .... 1526- 30), a descendant of Timur and the progenitor of the Indian  ...
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